Resource-Constrained SDN Blockchain for IoT

IEEE INFOCOM Workshop 2020

Software-Defined Network (SDN) is vital in simplifying the dynamic network characteristics and device management. However, the centralized architecture of SDN opens the scope for malicious attacks on the controllers. To mitigate such attacks in real-time, we propose an SDN architecture for resourceconstrained devices in a fog-enabled IoT environment using a private blockchain (pBC) network. We exploit the decentralized nature of pBC for enabling resource-constrained SDN controllers towards transparently setting flow rules for fog nodes and other devices in the network. In case the miners identify faulty flow rules, pBC allows the SDN devices/fog nodes to retract back to an earlier flow rule while raising a flag against the alleged controller. Additionally, since data in pBC are accessible by all the candidates having the same genesis file, they are readily available to malicious users. Towards this, we further propose encrypting the data before inserting them into the blocks, which helps in securing the data from undesired users. Through the extensive deployment of our proposed fusion, we observe CPU usage of 30% among the devices and latencies in the range of milliseconds, which presents the feasibility of our system with minimum delay. We also observe a reduction in energy consumption by more than 90%, compared to traditional SDN.

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Performance Evaluation of Edge Blockchain in IoT

IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems

The proliferation of IoT in various technological realms has resulted in the massive spurt of unsecured data. The use of complex security mechanisms for securing these data is highly restricted owing to the low-power and low-resource nature of most of the IoT devices, especially at the Edge. In this work, we propose to use blockchains for extending security to such IoT implementations. We deploy a private Ethereum blockchain consisting of both regular and constrained devices connecting to the blockchain through wired and wireless heterogeneous networks. We additionally implement a secure and encrypted networked clock mechanism to synchronize the non-real-time IoT Edge nodes within the blockchain. Further, we experimentally study the feasibility of such a deployment and the bottlenecks associated with it.We study the effects of network latency, increase in constrained blockchain nodes, data size, Ether, and blockchain node mobility during transaction and mining of data within our deployed blockchain. This study serves as a guideline for designing secured solutions for IoT implementations under various operating conditions such as those encountered for static IoT nodes and mobile IoT devices.

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Blockchains in UAV Networks

IEEE IoT Magazine

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are coming up as a powerful tool in various industrial applications in the context of enabling Industrial IoT. The limited power source and flight time of UAVs along with the need for skilled UAV operators are some of the most daunting challenges to the integration of UAVs in industrial applications such as site inspection, workforce monitoring, logistics, and others. In this paper, we propose the unique paradigm of blockchain-enabled UAV virtualization to provide virtual UAV-as-a-service for industrial applications. The proposed architecture also aims at providing secure and persistent UAV services to the end-users along with a partially decentralized blockchain model to ensure security, privacy, service quality, and transparency. UAV virtualization allows persistent UAV services, globally, without procuring any physical UAVs. The platform offers virtual UAV services on a pay per use basis to the enduser. The UAV owners and virtual UAV service providers gain monetary benefits for their contribution to the UAV services. Finally, we discuss the implications of the proposed platform on the domains of Industrial IoT and the possible challenges in the implementation of this paradigm.